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The starting point of this paper is a reflection on the essay that Piero Martinetti devotes to the Samkhya system, the philosophical basis underlying many aspects of the Indian civilization. However, rather than expounding or commenting on Martinetti's essay, the paper aims at exploring some crucial points of the Samkhya philosophy, also relating them to other Indian and Western perspectives. In particular, the paper will focus on the problematic philosophical issues connected to the radical Nature-Spirit dualism characterizing the Samkhya system. These issues will also be discussed by taking into account some aspects of the Cartesian system, the monistic po¬sition of Shankara and the Buddhist anti-metaphysical perspective.