The Thirties were a turning point in the trends of philosophical research at Bologna. The cooperation between scientists and philosophers of science as Federico Enriques, typical of the first decades of the century, and the interest of Rodolfo Mondolfo for the marxism were replaced by the penetration of idealism, particularly of the Gentilian "attualismo". The influence of Giuseppe Saitta and Felice Battaglia, both pupils of Gentile, involved the reabsorption of the Bologna's anomaly. This situation changed in the Fifties; and a new group of scholars opened new research directions toward aesthetics (Luciano Anceschi) or pedagogical inquiry (Giovanni M. Bertin). The post-war philosophical generation - educated at the school of Battaglia - approached the existentialism and the movement of "new enlightenment" of Abbagnano, and developed interests for political philosophy, for the British empiricism and the neopositivism of the Vienna Circle.