The Food Industry in Italy is an important sector of Manufacturing Industry with a large diffusion all over Italy. It is mainly concentrate in the Northern regions, whereas in the Southern regions it is one of the most important sector of the weak Manufacturing Industry. This paper analyse the localisation and the specialisation of Food Industry by sectors. It shows the importance to deepen the analysis at more detailed territorial level, from regional, to province up to municipal level. The lower territorial level of analysis allow to identify the principal local system of production, for this purpose we have used the Census data of Industry 1991 and 1996. These data evidence the important structural changes that have occurred in the main food sectors (meat, dairy and fruit and vegetables) in the years between the two Census. The survival analysis confirms the food industry is a dynamic one and with deep differences among the main sectors.