Informations and abstract
Keywords: Non-profit Organizations; Dualism; Job Creation
Territorial mobility for job reasons is a topic that has a great relief in a country like Italy. Information inferable from a National Statistical Institute (ISTAT) survey on Labour Forces, on the one hand provides us with indications about the characteristics of the people involved and analyzes flows direction, on the other hand it highlights meaningful differences both in structure and in territorial dynamics of employment related to job place rather than to residence. The picture that emerges describes commuting as a widespread phenomenon that involves over 9 million people, equal to the 40,1% of employment. Most transfers are not exhausted in another town of the same province of residence, but around 400.000 people work to such a distance that it doesn't allow them a daily return at home. There are different models of commuting. Centre-North regions are characterized by proximity commuting - almost all transfers are exhausted in the same province of residence or in a neighbouring province; whereas Southern regions are characterized by long distance commuting. Commuting flows going from South towards the Centre-North of Italy involve 151.000 people, equal to the 2,3% of employed residing in the South. Observing commuting flows, it is possible to individualize some poles of manpower attraction, mainly constituted by some most important Centre-North town centres, first of all Milan and Rome. Long distance commuting regards men in particular, especially those having less family responsibilities; furthermore, it concerns above all those having a temporary job, in comparison with those employed on a permanent basis or having a stable self-employment. Finally, dynamics of employment based on job place often diverges considerably from that based on region of residence.