Keywords: Environmental Pollution; Waste Disposal; Illegality; Policies to Combat Pollution.
The phenomenon of the so-called «Land of Fires» occurred in the Campania region, namely the use of the illegal waste disposal through their burning in the open air, produces environmental, economic and health damage on local inhabitants. Even if tests have ruled out the toxicity of food in that area, a serious problem of environmental pollution due to dioxins and heavy metals released into the air by the fires remains. The policies adopted so far have been repressing activities of illegal waste disposal, they have analysed the degree of pollution of farmland and have fostered marketing to improve the image of local products. What is missing is an industrial policy that removes upstream the main cause of pollution produced by micro and small enterprises aiming at lowering operating costs by illegally disposing waste. It is a wrong and illegal reaction to the effects of the crisis that has reduced the demand for businesses targeting local markets. There is need of an industrial policy for SMEs to intervene on their main weaknesses, promoting the adoption of green and innovative methodologies, leading to remove upstream the need of resorting to illegality to maintain enterprise competitiviness.