The article presents the introduction of the new category of National Theaters in Italy with the recent regulations on public financing of the performing arts. Italy does not have a tradition of National theaters as France or the United Kingdom and after the birth of the Piccolo Teatro di Milano in 1947 it divided the theatrical activity into public and private. Through a series of interviews with the directors of the current National theaters, the future perspectives of these cultural structures are explored. In particular, the analysis intends to define what the role of national theaters can be with respect to the territory and the general scenario of the theater system. The perspectives are investigated in terms of management, relations, possible strategies and economic and financial sustainability, also with respect to the financing of the State.