Keywords: Russian Revolution; Vatican Diplomacy; Roman Curia; Catholicism in Russia; Catholicism and Communism.
The Russian Revolution of 1917 had provoked deep changes in the political field and raised great fears and hopes. Neither the Vatican remained indifferent. This article aims to show how the Holy See perceived the Russian revolutionary process of 1917, from the events of February to the period of the Civil War. We will first remind the roman strong will - raised during the revolution of 1905 ‑ of a political change in order to free the catholic minority in Russia. Then, we will study the diplomatic and religious strategies promoted during the central years of the revolution (1917-24), in a very uncertain and violent context. Then, we will underline the major trends and steps of the theoretical and spiritual interpretations of the Russian revolution, in the 1920' and 1930', until 1937 when the encyclical "Divini Redemptoris" condemned "the revolution of our own days" as a consequence of the Russian revolution.