Keywords: Sustainable Energy; Multi-Level Governance; Regional and Local Actors.
Sustainability in energy generation, management and consumption is needed to develop effective decarbonisation policies and contribute to international climate mitigation efforts. Several public and private actors influence sustainable energy choices in a framework of multi-level and multi-actor governance in Europe. The role of regional and local actors has gained growing recognition. Cooperation among actors at these two levels can improve the effectiveness of climate mitigation strategies in the planning and implementation phases. Seven cooperation models between regional and local actors on sustainable energy were identified through the European Coopenergy project. These models differ for their scope, roles and types of actors, regulatory and planning context. These aspects were investigated also within a EU-wide survey which analysed 109 collaborative experiences on sustainable energy. The choice of governance models in sustainable energy emerges as key element for the effectiveness of administrative processes and the integration of government levels and sectorial policies.