Considering the effects of touch at the intrapersonal, interpersonal and intergroup level: A review
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Individuals possess an innate capacity to communicate and understand non-verbal cues (i.e., touch). In addition, touch affects individuals at the intrapersonal level (e.g., physiological reactions) and at the interpersonal level (e.g., impression formation, pro-social behavior). Recent studies testify to the effects of touch also at the intergroup level (e.g., improvement of outgroup attitudes). The present review will discuss the effects of touch on a wide range of situations, and differently from past reviews, special attention will be given to the effects of touch (also in its indirect form, i.e., imagined physical contact) at the intergroup level