This essay examines European Union legislation on civilian firearms currently in place. This is with the aim of assessing the potential contribution of Directive 2017/853/EU to balance the internal market objectives (i.e. cross border movement of firearms) and security policy objectives (i.e. high level of security and protection against criminal acts and illicit trafficking) within the EU. This study contends that the new Firearms Directive is relevant to current security and market needs and complies with EU subsidiarity and proportionality principles. It argues that Directive 2017/853/EU, if properly transposed into domestic legislation, might significantly contribute to a more effective harmonization of EU member States legislation on firearms, to the functioning of the internal market and maintaining high levels of security from dangers arising from the circulation of licit and illicit firearms.