Pierre Courtioux Christine Erhel

The French Middle Class and the Labour Market

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France is one of the European countries where the middle class defined according to an incomebased approach has been relatively numerous and stable since 1990. Our analysis confirms the hypothesis that the French labour market features a significant dualism: compared to lower-income groups, the middle class is relatively protected from unemployment and from the worsening of working conditions. Several reasons may explain this relative stability: occupational dynamics, the labour force participation trend, and social regulations.


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