This contribution - originally a book chapter - attempts to give an ordered account of the concepts of media, media histories, and media discussions present in various disciplines - e.g. history, media studies, linguistics and literary studies, history of art, and others - and places its main focus on the German speaking area from 1400 to 1800. It examines the changing relationship of orality, literacy, and typography brought on by the media revolutions. Furthermore, it outlines the transfer of technical inventions such as paper, picture printing, book printing, as well as their modifications between Asia and Europe. It goes on to look into the cultural history of the media in the realms of confession and alphabetization and discusses the emergence of national languages, the passing on of information, and knowledge storage at the point where religious and scientific concern, economic and administrative demands, as well as social and cultural impact meet.