Samuele Sottoriva

Notes from Hammamet. Bettino Craxi’s Window on the World in His Last Years (1994-2000)

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This essay analyses Bettino Craxi’s international thinking during his last years in Hammamet. Drawing on documents preserved at the Fondazione Bettino Craxi, the article reconstructs the main themes around which the former secretary of the Italian Socialist Party focused his reflections. First, it examines his views on Italy’s role in the new post-Cold War era; it then reconstructs Craxi’s analysis of major international events in the second half of the 1990s; lastly, it presents his judgements on some of the most significant episodes in his long political life. The essay concludes by assessing points of continuity and discontinuity within Craxi’s broader experience, particularly in relation to the evolution of Italian foreign policy after the end of the Cold War


  • Bettino Craxi
  • Italian Foreign Policy
  • Post-war Era
  • Italian Socialist Party


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