Federico Santi Alice Cancer Peter J. Schulz Silvana Castaldi Alessandro Antonietti

The social representations of neuroenhancement: A comparison between psychology and medicine students

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The present study aims to investigate the representations of neuroenhancement (NE) techniques (neurostimulation and use of psychotropic substances) by potential users, by assessing the level of knowledge, the perceived effectiveness, the attitude to their use, and the associated ethical issues. A sample of university students enrolled in psychology and medicine university courses was recruited to compare the representations in relation to the different educational background. Results showed that students of psychology are more familiar with neurostimulation and consider it more effective. No difference in relation to ethical aspects occurred: The whole sample declared the unacceptability of the NE in most contexts and the lack of openness to personal use of the techniques. Implications for the practice of NE are discussed


  • Enhancement
  • NE
  • empowerment
  • tDCS
  • NIBS
  • psychotropic drugs


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