In 1997, Telecom Italia Mobile (the most important European company of cellular phones) and trade unions have stipulated an agreement on unions and staff representatives participation in strategic decision of the firm. The agreement provides for the institution of trade unions and management commissions, at regional and plant level, for consultation and participation in the management decisions. The working of this system has been very intensive during the first year. Then, the doubts of the management and the lack of trust of the trade unions have begun to undermine the implementation of the agreement. The change of the company top manager, who strongly believed in the agreement, has caused other problems in the agreement implementation. Participation in Italy suffers for the absence of an institutional system and of an industrial relation culture not enough open to collaboration.