Keywords: Group Threat Theory; Contact Hypothesis; Immigration; Prejudice; Multilevel Analysis.
With the aim of understanding the relationship between the presence of immigrants and prejudice toward them, we tested two competing predictions drawn from the outgroup threat theory and the contact hypothesis. We also tested whether such relationship differed depending on individual political ideology. The results of a multilevel analysis conducted on longitudinal data from an Italian sample (N = 3,871, nested in 103 Italian counties) revealed that, in line with the group threat theory, the association between the immigrants' group size and prejudice was positive only among right-wingers. Strengths, limitations, and possible developments of this research are discussed.