Informations and abstract
Keywords: EU response to Covid19, Next Generation EU, National Recovery and Resilience Plan, conditionality.
The article argues that Covid-19 could have disrupted the Eu or at least aggravated internal divisions, but has, on the contrary, stirred a collective response that has in fact strengthened the union. National-populist parties are weaker, since there is a greater awareness that all Eu citizens and all member states have a stake in ensuring European cohesion. The article examines the sequence of policy decisions taken by Eu to face the main health, economic and social consequences of the Covid-19 pandemic, and points out key cleavages, compromises, forms of cooperation and conflict among European governance institutions (Council, Commission, Parliament, Central Bank) and member states. The genesis and implementation of the Next Generation Eu is analysed in terms of its overall aim (turning the challenges presented by the coronavirus pandemic and the need for Europe’s immediate economic recovery into a long-term opportunity for sustainable and inclusive growth), specific goals (green deal, digital transition), priority areas of intervention, innovative sources of financing (eurobonds, carbon border tax and digital tax), criteria of distribution of funds between grants and loans and among member states, guidelines for drawing up national recovery and resilience plans and controls on their implementation. Specific questions are also discussed such as the conditionality under the rule of law and the measurement of Ngeu benefits for the Italian economy and society.