This article aims at analysing Annibale Antonini’s preface to the first edition of Dictionaire italien, latin et françois (1735) according to the topics identified by Francoeur (2001) and Emanuele (2018). We will demonstrate how Antonini’s preface represents a remarkable paratextual element in which the author expresses his point of view in relation to the previous French-Italian lexicography and to the organization of the microstructure and macrostructure. We will also draw attention to Antonini’s considerations about the Italian language. In doing so, we will provide documentary evidence of the author’s contribution to the French-Italian literary polemic, known as the Orsi-Bouhours controversy. The last part of our study will be dedicated to Antonini’s unaccomplished project of writing a Universal Italian Dictionary, in order to evaluate the impact of Enlightenment on the lexicographer’s latest work.