Informations and abstract
Keywords: Social Protection; Welfare Regimes; Corruption; Resource Curse; Middle East and North Africa; Politics of Anger.
This article investigates the "confessional resource dependent welfare regimes" of the Middle East and North Africa. It emphasizes the elite-captured nature of resources as well as the dependence of these regimes on oil and gas revenues or the acquisition from state-assets. The article pays a special attention to religious and other non-state actors in the administration and delivery of social protection. By examining key institutional features in Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Libya, Jordan, Morocco, Syria, Yemen and Tunisia, the article also highlights the ways in which differential sets of social protection institutions succeeded in ensuring social peace and loyalty to the regimes. In addition, by identifying shortcomings and strengths in the administration of public goods, the article highlights the prospects for future and more successful reforms. In the conclusions, the «politics of anger» that led to the "Arab Spring" of 2011 is briefly elucidated.