Keywords: Empire, Imperialism, Europe, XIX Century.
If the nineteenth century has been the age of states, it is safe to assume that the historical period dominated by empires ended then. Empires survived only as residual elements; their decline and fall was crucial in the definition of political modernity. Yet modern states inherited countless features from their predecessors. Having perfected and refined the same techniques to rule and control their territory, they could be defined as concentrated and secularised empires. And indeed imperial forms dominated nineteenth century Europe: from Spain to Great Britain, from Russia to France, from Germany and Austria to the Ottoman empire. Understanding the nexus between empire and nation states is thus crucial to enlighten policies, choices and issues throughout contemporary history.