Maarten Mous

Copulas in Iraqw, a Cushitic language from Tanzania

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Iraqw copulas are used for predicational, specificational and equative clauses. Location requires a slightly different shape of copula and dependent clauses and verb forms yet another one. Presentative sentences are marked differently. Nominal clauses are negated by adding a predicative marker and a negation marker to the end of the clause. Not only nominal clauses but also verbal clauses require an extra word and these are identical to the copula in basic sentences. Nevertheless we cannot claim that every Iraqw sentences needs a copula because in verbal clauses these are replaced by object pronouns under certain circumstance even though the presence or absence of copula with these object pronouns relies on morphoholological analysis.


  • Iraqw
  • Infl
  • Copula
  • To Be


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