Since the controversial 2007 amendments to the Egyptian Constitution, «citizenship» has become one of the buzzwords of constitutional texts in that part of the Mediterrenean, featuring prominently in the post-2011 constitutions of Morocco and Tunisia as well as and Egypt. The vagueness of the concept has gone unaddressed, thus raising the question of its scope. A budding body of literature on citizenship pre-existed the new constitutions and is now increasing apace. Various trends are now evident under the heading of citizenship, showing both historical peaks and distinct local interests. This article addresses one of the most conspicuous and long-lasting trends: how religious discourse in Egypt has addressed the issue of citizenship since the 1920s. After identifying three main phases in the debate, the article presents a recent instance of creative engagement with Islam's texts and traditions, and contemporary constitutionalism.