Forty-nine children born to HIV positive mothers (36 infected at different stages of the disease, according to the Disease Control Classification Centers, and 13 seroreverters) underwent evaluation using a battery of neuropsychological tests administred twice in a period of two years. Attentional function impairments were present in all infected children, whereas memory deficits were evident only in those with full blown AIDS. Language and visuo-prassic abilities, and overall intelligence were spared. Performance of seroreverters was in the normal range. These findings suggest that even in neurologically asymptomatic children, neuropsychological evaluation can identify early impairment of specific cognitive functions. The findings are discussed in the light of the prognostic power of neuropsychological assessment for early signs of HIV neurological involvement.